Dr. Scott A. Ostrow, Lt Col, USAF (Retired)
Throughout my 27-year military career (as enlisted and officer, Active Duty and Reserve) I was given the opportunity, several times, to serve in recruiting. In my current position, as an Air Force JROTC instructor, I am often asked advice from my students regarding enlisting in the military on which military branch to join. Unfortunately, sometimes students ignore my advice, and all too often, they never ask for it in the first place.
Instead, they rely on the information they receive from recruiters, and, unfortunately, many times they rely on information about another branch from another service’s recruiter, for instance, getting advice from an Air Force recruiter about the opportunities available in the Army. I have compiled this article about choosing the branch that’s right for you to join based on my newly released Third Edition of Guide to Joining the Military (Peterson’s, 2013).
This article is meant to serve as a starting point for those who have already decided that they want to join the military but want to compare what each branch has to offer, and for those still deciding whether or not the military is the right choice for them. The first part of this article is devoted to helping you create a needs assessment to determine which, if any, branch meets your needs the best. The second part defines the mission of each branch and provides a short comparison of each service’s Basic Training.
If you are seriously considering joining the military, you probably have checked out at least two of the branches. I advise you to check them all out, even if it means just visiting their recruiting website. Although I was not interested in joining the Army, I did look at its brochures first to find out a little about its programs before I made my final decision (of course there was no Internet then).
A word of caution though on which military branch to join: sometimes (in reality, most times) recruiting brochures and websites do not tell the complete story, and it is difficult to base your decision either for or against on the contents of a brochure, or website. When I was a recruiter, people were always telling me that they weren’t interested because of what they had read about it in a brochure. I’d usually say something like, “I understand why you wouldn’t be interested in joining, but how could you be interested in something you know little about? That’s why I’d like to take a few minutes to meet with you in person and tell you a little more about your opportunities.”
Smooth sales talk? Perhaps, but it was the truth. Would you buy a car based solely on the information contained in a brochure or website? Probably not! And unless you totally hated the car based on the information in the brochure, you would probably not completely dismiss it as an option.
Choosing the Military (Needs Assessment)
You should have made a list of your primary motivators before you set foot in the recruiter’s office. Whether your list was long—containing such items as money for college, job security, opportunity to travel, technical training, and good pay—or contained only one item, such as having full-time employment, the number of items on your list is not what’s important. What is important is that you are able to satisfy those motivators.
Whatever your list contains, the first course of action is to collect your list of primary motivators and put them in order of importance to you. This process, known as rank-ordering, will help you determine if you should proceed with the enlistment process.
However, it should be noted that at this time you may not have all the information necessary to determine whether you should enlist. For instance, if your most important primary motivator is receiving technical training, you will not know if the military can meet this motivator unless you have taken the Armed Services Vocational Battery (ASVAB) and physical examination. If this is the case, you must make the assumption that you will qualify for technical training and base your decision on the information provided to you by your recruiter.
MAKING A CHOICE BETWEEN BRANCHES
After checking into the military branches that interest you, if there is clearly only one choice, then your decision has already been made (although I would have to question what you have based your decision on). But, if you are like most people (most people, that is, who have read my book and are taking my advice), you will have at least two branches in mind.
The process of choosing the right branch of the military for you is basically the same process that you should have used to determine if joining the military was right for you. You should start with your list of primary motivators and use the “yes/no” method to determine whether each branch can meet all or some of those motivators. Once you’ve determined which branch or branches can best meet your motivators, it’s time to compare those branches. What the first branch meets, the second may not; but what the first branch doesn’t, the second one might meet. Remember to look for the negative aspects as well as the motivators of each of the branches as you compare.
After making your comparisons, you may still find yourself with more than one choice. What do you do then? You could flip a coin, but I wouldn’t advise it. Instead, you may want to look at some of these factors:
• Length of enlistment—Some branches may require a longer term for offering the same benefits that you could receive from another branch.
• Advanced pay grade—You may be entitled to an advanced rank in some branches based on certain enlistment options.
• Length and type of training—How long will the training you’ll receive take? Usually the longer the training, the more in-depth and useful it is. You’ll also want to consider how useful the training will be once you’ve left the military.
• Enlistment bonuses—I caution you about using an enlistment bonus as the only factor in deciding which branch to choose. If it comes down to a tie between two branches and only one offers a bonus, it’s not a bad reason to choose that branch.
• Additional pay and allowances—There may be additional pay you’d be entitled to that can only be offered by a particular branch. For instance, if you join the Navy, you may be entitled to Sea Pay and Submarine Pay, something obviously not available if you join the Air Force.
• Ability to pursue higher education—Although all the military branches offer educational benefits, you must consider when you will be able to take advantage of these benefits. If you are in a job requiring 12-hour shifts and being out in the “field” a great deal, when will you attend classes? Even online classes may be difficult to accomplish in the field.
Once you have considered these factors, and perhaps some of your own, you should be able to decide which branch is right for you. If you still haven’t selected one branch over another, though, consider the following:
• Ask your recruiter if you can speak to someone who has recently joined.
• If there is a base nearby, you may be able to get a tour to get a look at its facilities.
• You may want to look for online blogs that cater to military members—then ask a lot of questions.
• Talk to friends and family members who are currently serving in the military. However, be careful not to talk to individuals who have been out of the military for a while, because they probably do not have an understanding of “today’s” military. Also avoid individuals who left the military under less-than-desirable conditions (for example, someone who was discharged from Basic Training for non-compatibility).
Guard and Reserve Opportunities
Other alternatives that may be available to you are the Air National Guard, the Army National Guard, and the Reserve components of the Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy. At this point it is important to mention that depending on your primary motivators, the Guard and Reserve may be a more viable option for you than Active Duty.
You should seriously consider the Guard and Reserve if:
• You have “deep roots” in your local community and you do not desire to leave home.
• You are attending college full-time and wish to continue at your current school.
• You currently have a full-time career and are only looking for additional income or some additional skills that you can apply to your full-time job.
The Guard and Reserve would probably not be an option for you if:
• You are looking for full-time employment.
• You desire to leave your current surroundings.
When choosing between Active duty and the Reserve, apply the primary motivator principles to help you decide your course of action.
Missions Despite what you may see online, on television, or from the recruiters for that matter, the mission of the military is not to provide its members with skills they can use when they leave the military, or to provide funding for college. Although those benefits, and others, may be a byproduct of military service, the true mission of the United States Military is national defense. Although similar in nature, each branch provides national defense in its own unique way (listed below).
Regardless of component, The Army conducts both operational and institutional missions. The operational Army consists of numbered armies, corps, divisions, brigades, and battalions that conduct full spectrum operations around the world. The institutional Army supports the operational Army. Institutional organizations provide the infrastructure necessary to raise, train, equip, deploy, and ensure the readiness of all Army forces. The training base provides military skills and professional education to every Soldier—as well as members of sister services and allied forces. It also allows The Army to expand rapidly in time of war. The industrial base provides world-class equipment and logistics for The Army. Army installations provide the power-projection platforms required to deploy land forces promptly to support combatant commanders. Once those forces are deployed, the institutional Army provides the logistics needed to support them.
The Army’s mission is to fight and win our Nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders. The Army does this by:
• Executing Title 10 and Title 32 United States Code directives, to include organizing, equipping, and training forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations on land.
• Accomplishing missions assigned by the President, Secretary of Defense and combatant commanders, and Transforming for the future.
The mission of the United States Air Force is to fly, fight and win … in air, space and cyberspace.
To achieve that mission, the Air Force has a vision of Global Vigilance, Reach and Power. That vision orbits around three core competencies: developing Airmen, technology to war fighting and integrating operations. These core competencies make our six distinctive capabilities possible.
Air and Space Superiority
With it, joint forces can dominate enemy operations in all dimensions: land, sea, air and space.
Because of technological advances, the Air Force can attack anywhere, anytime and do so quickly and with greater precision than ever before.
Rapid Global Mobility
Being able to respond quickly and decisively anywhere we’re needed is key to maintaining rapid global mobility.
The essence lies in the ability to apply selective force against specific targets because the nature and variety of future contingencies demand both precise and reliable use of military power with minimal risk and collateral damage.
The ability of joint force commanders to keep pace with information and incorporate it into a campaign plan is crucial.
Agile Combat Support
Deployment and sustainment are keys to successful operations and cannot be separated. Agile combat support applies to all forces, from those permanently based to contingency buildups to expeditionary forces.
For over two centuries the U.S. Coast Guard has safeguarded our Nation’s maritime interests in the heartland, in the ports, at sea, and around the globe. They protect the maritime economy and the environment, defend our maritime borders, and save those in peril. This history has forged the Coast Guard character and purpose as America’s Maritime Guardian — Always Ready for all hazards and all threats.
Today’s U.S. Coast Guard, with nearly 42,000 men and women on active duty, is a unique force that carries out an array of civil and military responsibilities touching almost every facet of the U.S. maritime environment.
The Coast Guard’s motto is Semper Paratus, meaning “Always Ready.”
By law, the Coast Guard has 11 missions:
• Ports, waterways, and coastal security
• Drug interdiction
• Aids to navigation
• Search and rescue
• Living marine resources
• Marine safety
• Defense readiness
• Migrant interdiction
• Marine environmental protection
• Ice operations
• Other law enforcement
The Marine Corps has been America’s expeditionary force in readiness since 1775. The Marines are forward deployed to respond swiftly and aggressively in times of crisis. They are soldiers of the sea, providing forces and detachments to naval ships and shore operations. They are global leaders, developing expeditionary doctrine and innovations that set the example, and leading other countries’ forces and agencies in multinational military operations. These unique capabilities make them “First to Fight,” and our nation’s first line of defense.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas.
In order to meet their individual missions, each military branch must train and indoctrinate their enlisted members. The initial military indoctrination occurs in Basic (or Recruit) Training. Although similar, each branch maintains its own unique Basic Training whose purpose is to transform young men and women into Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Coast Guardsmen, and Airmen. The table below gives a quick comparison of each branch’s Basic Training.
All military branches require trainees (recruits) to pass physical fitness tests. The physical requirements vary from branch-to-branch; however, they are all similar. Some branches also require trainees to pass a swim test in order to graduate. In all cases it is imperative that you prepare for both the physical fitness test and swim test before arriving at Basic Training.
Although Basic Training is a major part of your initial military service, it should not be used as the sole reason for choosing one branch over another, especially if you are considering making the military a career. Do not base a decision you will need to live with for 20 years based on the first 8 to 12 weeks of your enlistment.
Branch Length of Training Location(s) Swim Test
Air Force 8.5 Weeks Lackland Air Force Base, TX No
Army 10 Weeks Ft. Benning, GA
Ft. Jackson, SC
Ft. Knox, KY
Ft. Leonard Wood, MO
Ft. Sill, OK No
USCG 8 Weeks Cape May, NJ Yes
Marines 12 Weeks Parris Island, SC
San Diego, CA Yes
Navy 8 Weeks Great Lakes, IL Yes
Notes: All female Marine recruits go to Parris Island, SC for Recruit Training. Army Basic Training locations depend on MOS (military specialty). While most trainees complete Basic Training on time, some are set-back in training and, therefore, take longer to complete training.
Making the decision to join the military is an important one: Deciding which branch to join is equally important! It’s not enough to make that decision based on the information you received from a recruiter or a website. The purpose of this article was to introduce you to the military branches, and to provide some guidance in choosing which branch to join. It was not the intent.